Heritage Press – The Turn of the Screw by Henry James (1949)

May 26, 2014 Comments Off on Heritage Press – The Turn of the Screw by Henry James (1949)

The Turn of the Screw by Henry James (1949)
Sandglass Number 5N
Artwork: Illustrations by Mariette Lydis
Introduced by Carl Van Doren
Reprint of LEC #199, 19th Series, V. 3, in 1949.

Click images for larger views.

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Front Binding – American-turned-Briton James returns for his third appearance on the blog with The Turn of the Screw, one of his best known works. The prior appearances were Portrait of a Lady and The Ambassadors. Portrait features James’ Macy output. This is a rather bold binding, one we’re discuss shortly. I’m in the middle of reading this myself, and the story is quite solid, I must say.

Our two prior James novels had one-shot artists in charge of their illustrations, but Turn features an alumni of decorating a Macy tome: Mariette Lydis. Granted, she only did three books for the LEC — this, The Beggar’s Opera way back in 1937, and Love’s Labour’s Lost for the LEC Shakespeare line in 1939 — but her style is quite unique and visually striking. She matches the haunting atmosphere of James’ words quite well, in my opinion. This could be because she had illustrated the book before for the Hand and Flower Press of England. Macy’s original intent was to license Lydis’ work from that edition, but upon reconnecting with Lydis (who had moved to Brazil since her last commission) she insisted that she draw anew instead of recycle her older work, and thus a new set of illustrations! More on Lydis can be found in the Sandglass…more than you will find on James, to be honest! According to the Sandglass, this would have been the first time the Company licensed artwork that they themselves did not commission. However, after my initial posting, Django6924 was quick to point out:

Actually, the Sandglass is perhaps being somewhat absent-minded on the matter of reusing illustrations: the LEC in its first half-dozen years re-used Tenniel’s illustrations for the Lewis Carroll books, Kemble’s for Huckleberry Finn, Cruikshank’s for Punch and Judy, W.M. Thackeray’s for The Rose and the Ring though redone by Kredel (not to mention the HP Vanity Fair with Thackeray’s artwork), Hugh Thomson’s for The Cricket on the Hearth, the English version of the 2-volume Salome featuring Beardsley’s artwork, Hoffman’s original artwork for Slovenly Peter (albeit adapted by Kredel), the French version of Flowers of Evil with Rodin’s drawings, The Pilgrim’s Progress with William Blake’s artwork, and the period engravings for Aesop’s Fables, redrawn by Bruce Rogers.

However, in a curious case of memory failure, the Sandglass seems to have also forgotten how Mr. Macy made Ms. Lydis’ acquaintance, for in the Sandglass for The Beggar’s Opera, one reads:

In 1936, she came to New York {from Paris} for an exhibition of her paintings and her book illustrations…While she was here, she was told of The Limited Editions Club’s Second Competition for Book Illustrators, and she immediately submitted a series of lithographs to illustrate The Beggar’s Opera. The judges awarded her one of the prizes.

Things are a bit muddled here, as after winning the prize the LEC Directors decided to produce an illustrated edition of The Beggar’s Opera and had pulls made of Ms. Lydis’ art to illustrate said edition…so, one could say that the cart didn’t come before the horse, but one could as easily say that The Beggar’s Opera illustrations were really done before they were commissioned.

If, since most of these except for the reuse of the Thomson and Blake artwork, the originals were redrawn and/or colored you are willing to say that there was no prior reuse of existing art, then the first acknowledged case of such would either be the use of Piranesi’s etchings for The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire or Pierre Watrin’s illustrations for The Revolt of the Angels.

So, I suppose either the Sandglass author made a critical oversight or their definition of “licensing art” is radically different from ours! Thanks as always to Django6924 for the extra details.

Design Notes – Saul and Lillian Marks were the designers for this book. Some of their work previously featured on the blog before includes The Three-Cornered Hat and The Revolt of the AngelsThis is yet another brilliant execution of book design. The Marks chose Bembo for the font in a 16-point size, and chose floral “printer’s marks” as ornaments to help give the pages more flourish. The original pages from the LEC were sent to Macy in order to have photographic reproduction done for the Heritage edition; Duenewald Printing Corporation handled the task. Russell-Rutter bound the book with a brown linen with silver leaves elegantly placed to symbolically suggest the “screw”.

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Slipcase

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Title Page – Reader’s Club judge and frequent Introduction writer/book editor Carl Van Doren is summoned once more to give some history to a Macy publication.  He was a major contributor to Macy’s publications, being involved with The Federalist Papers, Penguin Island (LEC), The Singular Adventures of Baron Munchausen, The Iliad (Heritage) and Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court (LEC), among others.

Examples of the Illustrations by Lydis (right click and open in new tab for full size):

Personal Notes – I bought this from Bookhaven (now Old Capitol Books) in Monterey two or three years ago. It’s quite a lovely book. The LEC is not all that different design-wise, but the materials are far more exquisite. And, as I said before, the story is (so far) quite good!

Sandglass (right click and select Open in New Tab to see full size):

Heritage Press – Westward Ho! by Charles Kingsley (1947)

May 23, 2014 § 3 Comments

Westward Ho! by Charles Kingsley (1947)
Sandglass Number 7L
Artwork: Illustrations by Edward A. Wilson
Introduced by John T. Winterich
Reprint of LEC #182, 17th Series, V. 8, in 1947 in 2 volumes.

Click images for larger views.

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Front Binding – We’re back with new reviews! Yay! And our first book is the exquisite rendering of British author Charles Kingsley’s Westward Ho! for the Heritage Press. This is, as usual, a reprint of the LEC edition. Kingsley only saw this one book produced by the LEC, but the Easton Press would later issue The Water Babies under the Heritage Press label after they took over the brand. The Sandglass calls this a “masterwork of British propaganda…a symbol of British martial heroism”, and I suppose that’s a pretty accurate assessment. A nice little biography can be found in the Sandglass below.

Edward A. Wilson makes his second Macy appearance on the blog now, following his earlier Journey to the Center of the Earth. This is a better overall example of his work in my opinion, and stands as some of his finest illustrations I’ve come across. Perhaps, as the Sandglass notes, he is unmatched in his “creation of illustrations for a salty tale of the sea.” His full Macy bibliography is in the aforementioned post. For this book, the pen and brush were Wilson’s tools as he created over 40 full-color illustrations for Westward Ho!, and the Sandglass notes that the reprinting of these drawings were quite expensive! Photogravures of his original drawings were touched up and painted by Wilson via watercolor, and then lithographic processes brought the colors and lines together for the Heritage edition.

Design Notes – The binding is a lovely linen (“tough-binders’ linen” according to the Sandglass) of a “sea-green” tone, stamped with a Wilson design of a symbolic sailing of the sea done in a golden shade. The designer is notably absent here, when oftentimes leads to George Macy’s involvement in that role. However, Django6924 was kind enough to pass along some info from the Quarto-Millenary and the LEC letter:

The ML gives no indication of designer either, but in the Quarto-Millenary reference volume, the designer is designated as Eugene Clauss, about whom I found that he was a prominent lithographer at the J.C. Hall Company, Lithographers, Printers and Binders of Providence R.I. This and the LEC edition of The Scarlet Letter are apparently Mr. Clauss’ sole Macy efforts–and a fabulous one this one is!

The LEC was printed on a predominantly rag paper provided by the Worthy Paper Company and the binding was done by Russell-Rutter. (Same details about type used as the HP.) The illustrations were likewise produced in monochrome via photogravure, but the colors were hand-applied with stencils (pochoir process) and with watercolor paints–not printer’s inks.

Bodoni 175 is the font of choice. The bindery is also missing for the Heritage, but Russell-Rutter was the likely suspect.

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Slipcase

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Title Page – Although the title page omits this information, Heritage Press introductory alum John T. Winterich supplies such a preface for this work. I like this title page a lot; Wilson’s colors are indeed a wonderful thing when he’s on fire.

Examples of the Illustrations by Wilson (right click and open in new tab for full size):

Personal Notes – I originally acquired the Connecticut edition of this book from the Oakhurst Library as part of my 50-book haul back in 2012, but I came upon the New York printing in fairly good condition at a later sale from the same library for around $3, so I ditched my older edition for this one. I wouldn’t mind having the LEC of it!

Sandglass (right click and select Open in New Tab to see full size):

Of Interest: The History of the Heritage “Great French Romances” series

May 15, 2014 Comments Off on Of Interest: The History of the Heritage “Great French Romances” series

My good friend Django6924 has written up a splendid little history on one of George Macy’s many attempts to create something unique with the Heritage Press: the “Great French Romances” series. I originally had this in my Gods Are A-Thrist post, but it really should be its own thing.This is mostly unedited (beyond one transition snip, the addition of the authors/artists of the original series, a appendix of the final series in chronological order, a few typo fixes, and my italicizing the book titles) from his original posts. So, without further adieu, I’ll let him take over (the original posting can be found here). Major thanks to Django for letting me host this excellent summary!

In 1938, Francis Meynell of the Nonesuch Press in England, of which George Macy became Managing Director in 1936, joined with a committee of French writers, who were chaired by Andre Maurois, to produce a series, “The Ten Great French Romances,” for Nonesuch. These would have a distinctive typographic plan and binding, designed by Meynell, and would illustrated by the “best French book illustrators,” as chosen by the committee. The books were, in order of planned publication:

Dangerous Acquaintances by Choderlos De Laclos/Chas Laborde
Candide by Voltaire/Sylvain Sauvage
The Charterhouse of Parma by Stendhal/Demetrios Galanis
Manon Lescaut by the Abbé Prévost D’Exiles/Andre Dignimont
The Princess of Cleves by Madame de Lafayette/Hermine David
A Woman’s Life by Guy de Maupassant/Edy Legrand
Germinal by Emile Zola/Berthold Mahn
Madame Bovary by Gustav Flaubert/Pierre Brissaud
Old Goriot by Honore de Balzac/René ben Sussan
The Gods are A-thirst by Anatole France/Jean Oberlé

The typographic moulds were made in England, then sent to France for printing at the Inprimerie Protat Freres in Macon (home, incidentally, of an excellent burgundy), as the French had superior quality rag paper. The illustrations were first printed at Georges Duval in Paris by the collotype process, then hand-colored through the pochoir process by the studio of Beaufumé, also in Paris. It is not said where the characteristic binding of fleurs-de-lys patterned linen boards and buckram spine binding was done, but it was in France as well.

Between planning of the series, and the completion of the first two volumes, World War Two had begun. This not only complicated the production, but made it necessary to change plans. Since by this time it was obvious that more of the books would be sold through Heritage in the US, it was decided that all printing should henceforth take place in the US (again, remember that by this time George Macy was really running Nonesuch), though Meynell would continue to design the books in England. A quote from the Sandglass accompanying Dangerous Acquaintances and Candide gives an interesting insight into those nerve-wracking days:

“Transportation to England is difficult enough, transportation to America is far more difficult. Shipped in merchant vessels under convoy, the books have taken weeks to cross the ocean, weeks during which we at the Nonesuch Fellowship have often thought that they must surely be at the bottom of the ocean.”

The above was written in April 1940. In the same Sandglass, the outline for the series of Ten Great French Romances was given. Some interesting statements were:

“The binding of The Charterhouse of Parma will be green (mine is, in fact olive-green), the binding for The Gods are A-thirst will be yellow (mine and every copy I’ve seen is a more appropriate red), and each succeeding volume will be in a unique color.” (The ones I have seem to indicate that the “10 different colors” scheme was abandoned–also, Balzac’s Eugenie Grandet was published later with a green buckram spine and the green patterned fleurs-de-lys boards in the design established by Meynell).

“…Galanis has already finished his illustrations for The Charterhouse of Parma, Dignimont has finished his illustrations for Manon Lescaut, Hermine David has finished her illustrations for The Princess of Cleves, Mahn has finished his illustrations for Germinal, Legrand has finished his illustrations for A Woman’s Life, Brissaud is nearing completion of his illustrations for Madame Bovary, and Oberlé is nearing completion for his illustrations for The Gods are A-thirst.” (Not mentioned was the status of the remaining illustrations, those for Old Goriot by René ben Sussan.)

As a famous Frenchman once said, “the best laid schemes o’ mice and men, gang aft agley.” A letter To The Members OF THE HERITAGE CLUB dated April 10 announces that it will be “necessary for us to send both Dangerous Acquaintances and Candide to you in the same package”, in May, rather than in April and May successively. This was necessary because the head of the atelier doing the hand-coloring, M. Beaufumé, was suddenly called into the army and that it was then up to his wife and daughters to finish his work as well as their own.

The next book of the series, distributed in July, 1942 was entirely printed and bound in the US, The Gods Are A-thirst, for which Jean Oberlé did the illustrations and took them to London just ahead of the Occupation of Paris. The hand-coloring was done by Macy’s favorite pochoirist in the US at that time, Charlize Brakely.

The next book, A Woman’s Life, sent to subscribers in September, 1942, was again was done entirely in the US and again enlisted the services of Ms. Brakely. The illustrations were done by Edy Legrand, a Macy favorite who would later do the 2nd LEC Don Quixote, but who in 1942 had fled Paris for Fez in French Morocco. (Interestingly, the LEC would issue A Woman’s Life in 1952 with the same typographic plan, this time using the studio of Walter Fischer to do the pochoir hand coloring, one of the few times when an LEC in essence reissued the same book originally published by the Heritage Press using the same illustrations.)

In November of the same year, Heritage issued Germinal with b&w illustrations by Berthold Mahn, reproduced by photogravure. Frank Fortney at Russell-Rutter bound them in the fleurs-de-lys/buckram binding which matched the first two (and I assume the 3rd and 4th books, but although my copy of The Gods are A-thirst follows this design [albeit in red rather than the planned yellow], as does my Heritage copy of A Woman’s Life, I’m not sure my copies are the first Heritage editions). Things are getting a little strange by this time as the Sandglass for Germinal lists the Ten Great French Romances again, and lo, Manon Lescaut has dropped off the list and has been replaced by Gautier’s Mademoiselle de Maupin! No explanation for this is given, but the obvious one is — the Heritage Press had already issued Manon Lescaut with a pigskin leather spine and marbled paper boards back in 1935 with illustrations by Brissaud (and with an original lithograph signed by Brissaud in the 1500 copies that were first offered to members of the LEC as a “collector’s item” when the Heritage Press was launched). And what of Dignimont’s “finished” illustrations for Manon as announced back in 1940? Never used anywhere, apparently, and perhaps destroyed during the war. One would love to see them, especially in light of the illustrations I saw once which Dignimont made for Pierre Louys’ Petites Scenes Amoureuses–which border on the pornographic, but in a most beautiful and Frenchified way. (Dignimont later did The Wanderer and The Moonstone for the LEC and Heritage Press.)

In January of 1943, Madame de Lafayette’s wonderful The Princess of Cleves is issued. Meynell planned the design and printed his specimen pages at the Fanfare Press before war broke out. The book features many beautiful illustrations by Hermine David, who after completing the illustrations in Paris just before the Occupation, “disappeared into a convent,” according to an earlier Sandglass. (She didn’t take orders, this was more of a retreat to a Benedictine abbey in Dourgne, near the southern French city of Toulouse, to where she returned many times until her death in 1970, seeking inspiration while doing her illustrations which became increasingly ones with religious subject matter.) The Princess of Cleves was letterpress-printed in New York at the printing house of Leo Hart, and once more the delicate hand-coloring was done at Charlize Brakely’s studio. The series binding of buckram and fleurs-de-lys was utilized. My copy is a light brown, and as far as I know this was the only printing of this particular work by Heritage or Nonesuch (and no LEC edition) until the Norwalk, CT incarnation of the Heritage Press issued it in 1970–not utilizing the series binding.

It is not until February, 1944 that the next Great Romance appears and it is, in fact, Theophile Gautier’s Mademoiselle de Maupin. (Parenthetically, I have to say I can’t understand its omission from the original list as it is a much more compelling novel than Manon Lescaut.) By now the original plan announced in 1938 is really having difficulties–mostly due to the war. Mademoiselle de Maupin is not designed by Francis Meynell (who was probably spending a fair amount of time in 1942-1943 dodging into air raid shelters) but by American George Salter (who was born a German and whose design for the cover of Berlin Alexanderplatz in 1929 was a revelation in its time). The illustrations–and racy ones they are!–were by Andre Dugo, a French expatriate living in New York. The binding utilized the same pattern as the previous books, this time blue buckram and cream and blue fleurs-de-lys boards.

In September, 1949, Old Goriot, is finally published with René ben Sussan’s illustrations. The title page has The Heritage Press, New York & The Nonesuch Press, London, though the obverse side simply says “Printed in the United States of America.” There is no date of publication–an anomaly in the series. The Sandglass says M. ben Sussan “had a bad time, an altogether bad time” during the war, spending his time dodging the Nazis. His remarkable illustrations were reproduced from his B&W brush drawings via gravure, then the colors were applied, not by pochoir, but by hand cut rubber plates, one for each color. The rubber plates were done by Herbert Rau. Are they as good as hand-colored using stencils? I don’t know, but they are truly wonderful and match any of the hand-colored ones in the series. The series binding is used (only “Nonesuch” appears on the red buckram spine–not “Heritage”).

It isn’t until February, 1951 that Madame Bovary appears. I foolishly gave away my Heritage/Nonesuch edition when I acquired the LEC version which came out in April, 1950, so the information which follows comes from the LEC Monthly Letter. As you remember, Pierre Brissaud had elected to do Bovary and was “nearing completion” when the series was announced in 1940. The Monthly Letter continues:

“But by the time M. Brissaud finished his illustrations, the Nazis had marched into Paris and the Nonesuch Press had lost contact, with M. Brissaud on the one hand, and with us on the other. It was to us, at the headquarters of the Limited Editions Club in New York, that the Brissaud illustrations for Madame Bovary found their way; and it was we who, immediately after the war was over, found ourselves in Paris with those illustrations under our arm and the mission to have those illustrations reproduced in Paris, not for the Limited Editions Club, but for the Nonesuch Press.”

The Monthly Letter then goes on to say that discovering that the atelier of Théo Schmied had reopened in Paris, and M. Schmied had indicated his interest in printing the Brissaud illustrations through multiple wood engravings, that it was decided Bovary with the Brissaud illustrations reproduced through multiple wood engravings in color would be issued first as an LEC book, and it was. This was despite the fact that Madame Bovary had been previously issued by the LEC in 1938, with illustrations by Gunther Boehmer (I’ve never seen a copy of this edition). The Monthly Letter then adds a reassuring note:

“Now once this edition…is distributed to members of this Club, it will be followed by an unlimited edition (in which the illustrations will be reproduced in monochrome) to be included in that series called The Ten Great French Romances, for distribution by the Nonesuch Press in London, and for the Nonesuch Press, by the Heritage Club in New York.”

Meynell’s typographic plan was used for the LEC editon, and of course, for the unlimited edition, which, if memory serves me, had “Heritage” on the bright green buckram spine, with green fleurs-de-lys patterned boards, which indicates it was a later printing as the 1950 edition had “Nonesuch” on the spine, which was lavender. As I remember, my Heritage edition had the illustrations reproduced in color–not monochrome.

Stendahl’s The Charterhouse of Parma brought the series to a close in 1955. The series binding features “Heritage” on the olive-green buckram spine, and the title page doesn’t mention Nonesuch. The designer of the typographic plan isn’t specified in the Sandglass, though it looks very much like Meynell’s other designs. The illustrations are not by Galanis, but by Rafaello Busoni, who had won an international competition sponsored by the LEC in 1945 and on the basis of that had already illustrated Stendahl’s other novel The Red and the Black for the LEC. What happened to Galanis’ illustrations, which were already finished back in 1940? I haven’t found any evidence in my readings, but remembering that Galanis had been commissioned by the LEC before to illustrate Oedipus the King, and that those illustrations had come a cropper during the Occupation, it’s possible an identical fate befell the Stendahl illusrations. (If you are unfamiliar with the Galanis/Sophocles story, here is a link to WildcatJF’s excellent summary.

The Busoni illustrations are two-color lithographs and are actual lithographic prints. The type pages were composed by Leo Hart and printed by the Riverside Press. The binding was done by Frank Fortney.

The Herculean labor of completing this series must have been a relief to Macy, and probably a source of pride. These books are really wonderful and the best of them fully the equivalent of some of today’s limited fine press books.

The final list, then, is as follows:

Candide by Voltaire/Sylvain Sauvage (1939, Heritage exclusive)
Dangerous Acquaintances by Choderlos De Laclos/Chas Laborde (1940, Heritage exclusive)
The Gods are A-Thirst by Anatole France/Jean Oberlé (1942, Heritage exclusive)
A Woman’s Life by Guy de Maupassant/Edy Legrand (1942 Heritage printing, 1952 LEC edition available)
Germinal by Emile Zola/Berthold Mahn (1942, Heritage exclusive)
The Princess of Cleves by Madame de Lafayette/Hermine David (1943, Heritage exclusive)
Mademoiselle de Maupin by Theodore Gautier/Andre Dugo (1943, LEC edition available)
Old Goriot by Honore de Balzac/René ben Sussan (1948, LEC edition available)
Madame Bovary by Gustav Flaubert/Pierre Brissaud (1950, LEC edition available)
The Charterhouse of Parma by Stendhal/Rafaello Busoni (1955, LEC edition available)

UPDATE!

It’s recently been brought up that the Heritage Press issued a second Honore de Balzac work under the same design auspices of this series despite originally not being included on the list. Django6924 once again is the source of the below info:

Unlike the other books in the series, Eugenie Grandet was not on the original pre-WWII slate of Ten Great French Romances (the Balzac representative being Old Goriot under Meynell’s master plan). Now this plan changed early on, but Eugenie was never one of the group, and the HP edition is, in this case, a reprint of the LEC (also designed by Meynell). I suppose that in the post-George Macy period, it was felt that putting the HP reprint in the same series binding would encourage those who had some or all of the others to want to extend the collection, as you mentioned.

The HP Eugenie is a fine addition to the series, although it doesn’t feature any hand-colored illustrations like the original group; to the best of my memory, the colors applied via hand-cut rubber plates were excellent. I prefer the fleur-de-lys binding of the HP to the LEC’s khaki-colored buckram with black-leather labels made to resemble some sort of medieval-esque binding hinges. The true superiority of the LEC is in the paper, a thick, rich paper that must be 100% rag; I say “must be” because the Monthly Letter doesn’t mention a word about the paper.

Thanks once again!

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